kaolin sources of environmental exposure

What are the drivers of microplastic toxicity? Comparing the Except for PLA, the impacts of the particle exposure on daphnid survival were low with 10 mg/L PVC and 50 mg/L kaolin inducing a maximum of 30% mortality . An exposure to PLA increased the mortality in a concentrationdependent manner to 60% at 500 mg/L. The mortality in the controls was 5%.

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Kaolin University of HertfordshirePesticide properties for Kaolin, including approvals, environmental fate, ecotoxicity and human health issues

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Environmental Exposure and Health Effects Associated with Malathion (O,OdimethylS1,2bis ethoxy carbonyl ethyl phosphorodithionate) is a nonsystemic, widespectrum pesticide. It is widely used throughout the world for agricultural, residential, and public health purposes, mainly to enhance food production and to provide protection from disease vectors. Malathion preference over other organophosphate pesticides relates to its low persistence in

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EWG Skin Deep® What is KAOLINEWGs Skin Deep rates thousands of personal care product ingredients, culled from ingredient labels on products, based on hazard information pulled from the scientific literature and industry, academic and regulatory databases.

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Kaolin: Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Dosage, and WarningOverview Information Kaolin is a type of clay found in nature. It can also be made in a laboratory. People use it to make medicine. Kaolin is used for mildtomoderate diarrhea, severe diarrhea

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Kaolin Uses, Benefits &Dosage Drugs Herbal DatabaseKaolin has traditionally been used internally to control diarrhea. Kaolin has also been used topically as an emollient and drying agent. Specifically, it has been used to dry oozing and weeping poison ivy, poison oak, and poison sumac lesions. It has also been used as a protectant for the temporary relief of anorectal itching and diaper rash.

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Kaolin is a hydrated aluminum silicate. It occurs naturally as a clay that is prepared for pharmaceutical purposes by washing with water to remove sand and other impurities.(1)

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Kaolin has been used commercially and medicinally for hundreds of years. It is currently used in the manufacture of pottery, bricks, cement, ceramics, paints, plastering material, color lakes (insoluble dyes), and insulators. As a raw material, it is commonly found in paper, plastics, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals2 and it is also used in pharmaceutical preparations as a filtering agent to clarify liquids. Evidence also suggests that kaolin may be useful in the decolorization of dye wastewate

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Kaolin has the approximate chemical formula of H2Al 2Si2O8 (H2O) and is a white or yellowwhite powder that has a slightly oily feel. It is an environmentally benign aluminosilicate mineral4 that is insoluble in water.1 Light kaolin is the preferred material for use in pharmaceutical preparations. The finely divided particles yield a very large surface area that adsorbs a wide variety of compounds.

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Older studies report a lack of evidence of benefit for the treatment of diarrhea in animalshowever, kaolin has been given to small animals, foals, calves, lambs, and kids.5, 6

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26.2 g after each loose stool every 6 hours until firm stooldo not exceed more than 262 g per 24 hoursdo not use longer than 2 days.23

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Because kaolincontaining preparations are not systemically absorbed and do not cross the placenta, kaolin is listed as Pregnancy Category C. However, there is a possible association between kaolin ingestion and the development of iron deficiency anemia and hypokalemia, especially during pregnancy.25, 26In a small study of female rats, hemoglobin, hematocrit, and red blood cell levels were reduced in the groups of rats that ingested a kaolincontaining diet. Additionally, the pups born to the

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Most drug interaction studies of kaolin have involved administration of kaolin pectin. Kaolin pectin can form insoluble complexes with a number of drugs and should be avoided in patients receiving drugs that may chelate with aluminum salts (eg, digoxin28, 29, 30 clindamycin31 lincomycin32 and penicillamine33. Until more information is available, interactions that occur with kaolin pectin should be considered to occur with kaolin alone. Additionally, concomitant administration of kaolin pectin

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Kaolin is highly insoluble and is not absorbed systemically. Therefore, it is not generally associated with severe toxicity. The toxicology of clays including kaolin used in food packaging has been reviewed, with no clear evidence of systemic toxicity reported.39Inhalation of kaolin through occupational exposure may cause pneumoconiosis.37, 38

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This information relates to an herbal, vitamin, mineral or other dietary supplement. This product has not been reviewed by the FDA to determine whether it is safe or effective and is not subject to the quality standards and safety information collection standards that are applicable to most prescription drugs. This information should not be used to decide whether or not to take this product. This information does not endorse this product as safe, effective, or approved for treating any patien

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Always consult your healthcare provider to ensure the information displayed on this page applies to your personal circumstances.Medical Disclaimer

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Sustainable kaolin transformation EIT RawMaterialsJul 14, · To further reduce the environmental impact of kaolin production, Outotec tested diversified energy sources in this case, pelletised sewage sludge to fuel the calcination process. A hotgas cleaning system was used to prevent tar condensation and the need for further cleaning stages to ensure product quality even with a biomassbased fuel.

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Inventory of Dioxin Sources and Environmental Releases The report contains an inventory showing a significant reduction in environmental releases of dioxinlike compounds from regulated industrial sources between the years 1987 and 2000. Open burning of residential refuse in backyard burn barrels was the largest source in 2000 that could be reliably quantified.

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Inventory of Dioxin Sources and Environmental Releases The report contains an inventory showing a significant reduction in environmental releases of dioxinlike compounds from regulated industrial sources between the years 1987 and 2000. Open burning of residential refuse in backyard burn barrels was the largest source in 2000 that could be reliably quantified.

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5 Environmental Toxins and How to Reduce Your ExposureYou can check to see if you live in a radonheavy zone in the United States through the Environmental Protection Agency. Radon sources: Groundlevel rooms and waterTips for reducing radon exposure: Seal floors and walls. Increase underfloor ventilation and overall ventilation. Close the basement off from the rest of the house, if possible.

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Bentonite, Kaolin and Selected Clay Minerals (EHC 231, 2005)1.2 Sources of human and environmental exposure Montmorillonite is ubiquitous at low concentrations in soil, in the sediment load of natural waters, and in airborne dust. Biodegradation and bioaccumulation in the foodchain appear minimal, if they occur at all, and abiotic degradation of bentonite into other minerals takes place only on a

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Common Sources of Exposure to Dioxin Dioxin US EPACommon Sources of Exposure to Dioxin Dioxins are one group in EPAs list of 30 hazardous air pollutants that pose the greatest potential health threat in urban areas. Although there are hundreds of different forms, only the 2,3,7,8substituted tetra through octachlorinated dioxins and furans cause toxic effects.

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BENTONITE, KAOLIN, AND SELECTED CLAY MINERALSBENTONITE, KAOLIN, AND SELECTED CLAY MINERALS PREAMBLE viii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS xvi 1. SUMMARY 1 1.1 Identity, physical and chemical properties, and analytical methods 1 1.2 Sources of human and environmental exposure 2 1.3 Environmental levels and human exposure 2 1.4 Kinetics and metabolism in laboratory animals

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Types of Exposure Environmental Health and Safety Oregon External exposure occurs when all or part of the body is exposed to a penetrating radiation field from an external source. During exposure this radiation can be absorbed by the body or it can pass completely through. A similar thing occurs during an ordinary chest xray. Note that exposure to a radiation field does not cause an individual to become radioactivethe radiation exposure ceases as

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Common Sources of Exposure to Dioxin Dioxin US EPACommon Sources of Exposure to Dioxin Dioxins are one group in EPAs list of 30 hazardous air pollutants that pose the greatest potential health threat in urban areas. Although there are hundreds of different forms, only the 2,3,7,8substituted tetra through octachlorinated dioxins and furans cause toxic effects.

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Chapter 6: Exposure Evaluation: Evaluating Exposure Pathways Figure 61 illustrates the overall process of evaluating exposure pathways. As the figure shows, health assessors typically evaluate exposure pathways before they conduct health effects evaluations (see Chapters 7 and 8). This order is logical because extensive health effects evaluations are not necessary if people are not coming into contact with environmental contamination. When reading this chapter, however, keep in mind that exposure pathway evaluations eventually inform the health effects evaluations, if they need to be performed. Specifically, thorough exposure pathway evaluations should define the points of exposure, concentrations of environmental contamination at these points, and the populations that are potentially exposed.

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ATSDR environmental health scientists study exposures in the context of the following five exposure elements: 6.3.2 Physical and ChemicalSpecific Factors That Influence Environmental Fate and Transport Factors related to climate can be important when trying to understand the likelihood of contaminant movement in a particular setting. The following factors are a partial list of those which affect environmental fate and transport:

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Figure 62 is an example of a schematic that may form the basis of a site conceptual model for a site with a pile of waste drums. The schematic indicates the various ways in which contaminants can move from the source through media to points of exposure. Naturally, the model for your site will depend entirely on sitespecific conditions. For instance, if the pile of waste drums shown in Figure 62 were located in a lined landfill with leachate controls, contaminants likely would not enter the groundwater and move off site.

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Exposure pathways start with a source of contamination. Section 6.2.1 defines this term and offers guidance on how to identify sources. Section 6.2.2 describes how to characterize the environmental media that sources of contamination may affect. Public health assessments need to consider both the sources of chemical public health hazards and physical public health hazards. Section 6.2.3 presents considerations for addressing physical hazards.

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A contamination source is, as the term implies, the origin of environmental contamination. Identifying possible contamination sources helps determine what environmental media may be affected and how hazardous substances might reach populations at or near a site. Examples of contamination sources include, but are not limited to, the following: Some sites have just one contamination source, but many sites have numerous sources. Each source represents a locationa point or areawhere a release of contaminants may be occurring or may have occurred. Knowledge of a sites sources is critical because it enables you to determine whether all possible receiving media have been adequately studied. For example, if the source of contamination is a leaking underground storage tank, reviewing levels of contamination in soil, soil gas, and groundwater will be necessary to accurately determine if people are being exposed. Sometimes your understanding of a contaminants physical and chemical properties is sufficient to characterize fate and transport for the exposure pathway evaluations. This section briefly describes chemical and physical properties that can influence a contaminants fate in the environment. Knowledge of these properties will enable you to understand a contaminants behavior in the environment and can help, when necessary, to focus the assessment on transport mechanisms of possible significance. For example, chemicalspecific factors can help determine whether particular pesticides detected in lake sediment are likely to accumulate in fish.

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Sometimes, you may identify elevated contaminant levels, but may not be able to identify the original source of contamination. For example, elevated levels of lead (compared to background) may be detected in site soils but the source of the lead might not be identified. In such cases, you might conclude that a source of contamination existed at some point in the sites history, though the details of the original release might not be known. In other cases, the source of detected contamination may be upgradient of your site.

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Ultimately, you will use information on contamination sources for perspective on the types and durations of possible exposures. Keep in mind that, when identifying contamination sources, you will need to clearly indicate what is known about the type and extent of contamination at the source and at the receiving media. In addition, you should clearly state whether contamination sources have been adequately characterized, whether source areas have been remediated, and how the available information affects the ability to characterize exposures.

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After identifying the contamination source, you should identify all environmental media that may serve to transport contaminants from the source(s) to possible points of human exposure. Affected media may include:

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6.2.3 Identifying Physical/Safety Hazards Though most of this manual focuses on evaluating the public health implications of exposure to environmental contaminants, ATSDR, as a public health agency, also considers physical or safety hazards of the sites (or sources) under evaluation. In doing so, the agency helps to ensure that the health and safety of the public are protected. Various physical and safety hazards may exist at hazardous waste sites, such as: unsafe structures, dangerous or abandoned equipment, debris, accumulation of explosive and asphyxiating gases, open pits and mine shafts, confined spaces, unexploded ordnance (see text box), lagoons, and unsafe terrain. All physical threats should be considered, including threats of fire or explosion. When evaluating a site, you need to identify any safety hazards that have the potential to cause harm to people working or living on or near the site. Review of site documents (including the CERCLA required site safety plan), contacts with site officials, and observations during site visits will help identify such hazards (see Chapter 3). As is true when studying any siterelated hazard, you should evaluate the likelihood, if any, that people have access to unsafe areas before determining the extent to which a safety hazard exists. For example, an abandoned building may be in serious disrepair but it may pose no public safety threat if it is located inside a securely fenced, inaccessible area where no signs of trespassing (e.g., foot prints or garbage) have been observed.

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ATSDRs mandate does not include the health of workersthis issue is mainly the responsibility of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Exposures directly related to worker activities fall under the purview of these agencies. If workers request information on potential occupational hazards, whether chemical or physical, you should generally refer them to these agencies. However, ATSDR has limited authority to examine health issues of workers who perform remedial tasks, and the public health assessment process does consider exposures related to the environmental releases under study (e.g., worker exposure to contaminated groundwater via the drinking water supply).

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You might use different types of information when evaluating fate and transport, the second element of an exposure pathway. The following categories of information may be useful for some sitespecific evaluations:

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Fate and transport are interdependent processes. Transport involves the movement of gases, liquids, and particulate solids within a given medium and across interfaces between water, soil, sediment, air, plants, and animals. Fate refers to what eventually happens to contaminants released to the environmentsome fraction of the contaminants might simply move from one location to the nextother fractions might be physically, biologically, or chemically transformedand others still might accumulate in one or more media.

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The chemical and physical properties described below, however, are the results of laboratory studies in highly controlled conditions and may not reflect accurate behavior of chemicals in uncontrolled environmental conditions. Laboratory studies usually do not reflect the multiple variables and influences found in the environment such as chemical mixtures and varying geochemical conditions of soils and geologic materials. Health assessors should not rely too heavily upon theoretical and laboratory studies to predict the fate and transport of sitespecific contaminants. Sitespecific environmental measurements that reveal how much and where contamination exists are always preferred.

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Many climatic and physical factors can affectspeed up, slow down, or even stophow contaminants transport through the environment and ultimately affect whether human exposures may occur. Obtaining this information can help you determine whether and how quickly contaminants are likely to reach points of possible exposure. For example, precipitation, topography, hydrology, hydrogeology, and soil type indicate how quickly watersoluble contaminants will enter groundwater, while temperature and other factors affect whether and how quickly contaminants will volatilize into the air.

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Dioxins: Sources of environmental load and human exposure (1990). Dioxins: Sources of environmental load and human exposure. Toxicological &Environmental Chemistry: Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 157234.

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Georgia Mining Association Georgia's Kaolin IndustryThe kaolin industry provides steady employment for a largely rural part of middle Georgia. This employment affects many counties, helping hundreds of local businesses. In addition, the export activities of the industry are a major source of revenue for Georgias Port of Savannah. Total Economic Impact

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Kaolin sources, health risks Natural Pedia ComKaolin has an array of purported health benefits that include being used as a treatment for diarrhea, gastric ulcers, and inflammation. Despite all this, there are still considerable heath risks and side effects that come with the usage of and exposure to kaolin. Harmful effects that can be caused by kaolin

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Environmental Transport and Exposure Pathways of Substances Potential sources of general population exposure to mercury include inhalation, ingestion of drinking water and foodstuffs, and exposure through dental and medical treatments. Food, particularly fish consumption, is the major environmental path of exposure for mercury.

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Dioxins: Sources of environmental load and human exposure (1990). Dioxins: Sources of environmental load and human exposure. Toxicological &Environmental Chemistry: Vol. 29, No. 3, pp. 157234.

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CDC NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards KaolinIncompatibilities &Reactivities. None reported. Exposure Routes. inhalation, skin and/or eye contact. Symptoms. Chronic pulmonary fibrosis, stomach granuloma. Target Organs. respiratory system, stomach. Personal Protection/Sanitation.

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NIOSHTIC2 Publications Search 00168033 Kaolin Results of a health hazard evaluation conducted by NIOSH at a kaolin mill (SIC3295) in Georgia were summarized. Area and personal air samples were analyzed for respirable dust, crystalline silica (7631869), fibers, and trace metals.

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KAOLIN CAMEO Chemicals NOAAThe Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.

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Common Sources of Exposure to Dioxin Dioxin US EPACommon Sources of Exposure to Dioxin Dioxins are one group in EPAs list of 30 hazardous air pollutants that pose the greatest potential health threat in urban areas. Although there are hundreds of different forms, only the 2,3,7,8substituted tetra through octachlorinated dioxins and furans cause toxic effects.

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KAOLIN CAMEO Chemicals NOAAThe Physical Property fields include properties such as vapor pressure and boiling point, as well as explosive limits and toxic exposure thresholds The information in CAMEO Chemicals comes from a variety of data sources.

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Types of Exposure Environmental Health and Safety Oregon External exposure occurs when all or part of the body is exposed to a penetrating radiation field from an external source. During exposure this radiation can be absorbed by the body or it can pass completely through. A similar thing occurs during an ordinary chest xray. Note that exposure to a radiation field does not cause an individual to become radioactivethe radiation exposure ceases as

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Kaolinite There, the kaolin is called white dirt, chalk, or white clay. Safety. People can be exposed to kaolin in the workplace by breathing in the powder or from skin or eye contact. United States

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  • What Are Other Potential Sources and Pathways of Hazardous 05, 2015 · Both contaminated public drinking water supplies and contaminated private wells may be sources of toxic exposure, especially for industrial solvents, heavy metals, pesticides, and fertilizers. For example, an EPA groundwater survey [US Environmental Protection Agency 1985] detected trichloroethylene in approximately 10% of the wells tested.

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    What Are Other Potential Sources and Pathways of Hazardous 05, 2015 · Both contaminated public drinking water supplies and contaminated private wells may be sources of toxic exposure, especially for industrial solvents, heavy metals, pesticides, and fertilizers. For example, an EPA groundwater survey [US Environmental Protection Agency 1985] detected trichloroethylene in approximately 10% of the wells tested.

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