mining ore surface mining methods iron ore

Mining of Iron Ores IspatGuru 14, 2014 · Mining techniques usually consist of two types based on excavation methods. These are surface mining and underground mining (sub surface mining). Iron ore is almost exclusively mined by surface operations. The most predominant surface mining methods used for mining of iron ores are open pit mining methods and open cut mining methods.

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A Brief Introduction to the Types of Surface Mining Methods Some of the largest vehicles in the world, such as bucketwheel excavators, are used in surface mining. In the manufacturing sector, industries need a continuous supply of certain raw materials like iron, aluminum, and coal. Such materials are found in nature, though in an impure form called minerals. These minerals do not occur by themselves, but are trapped in rocks called ores. To make matters worse, ores are found only in certain regions, where they are concealed under a layer of rocks, forests, or oceans. To get the materials that we need, their minerals have to be removed from the Earth, and purified. Ore deposits that are not found deep within the Earth can be extracted simply by removing the rock layer above them. This process is called surface miningbecause contact is maintained with the surface throughout. The other harder method is to drill holes deep inside the Earth to travel beneath the rock layer. As expected, this method is called underground mining. While it m

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Openpit mining is a method in which an ore is removed by digging a pit in the ground, and is used to remove copper, gold, iron, as well as nonmetallic minerals. It is normally used when the rock layer above the ore is too weak to allow underground tunnels. In this technique, circular steps, or benches, are dug around the circumference of the pit to remove ore from the sides. When ore can no longer be removed from one bench, a new one is dug at a lower level. Thus, openpit mining is ideal for ore deposits lying under thin rock, or ore deposits in the form of layers which can be easily removed by digging benches. The equipment used for this method is mostly restricted to dump or haul trucks, and shovels, though conveyors can quicken the process.

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Quarrying is a type of openpit mining, but restricted mostly to construction materials like aggregate, limestone, marble, cement, and lime. In this technique, holes are drilled in the rock to insert explosives, which break it into manageable chunks. These fragments are taken to a processing site near the mine, where the rock is washed, crushed, and screened to select material of the desired size and strength. Usually, construction sites use materials quarried near the site to reduce transportation cost. A variety of equipment such as conveyors, forklifts, saws, trucks, crushers, and drills are used in this method.

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As the name suggests, this involves cutting rock above an ore deposit in long strips. This uncovers the ore, which is then removed. When the deposits in a strip are exhausted, another strip is dug beside itessentially all strips are parallel to each other. The overburden (waste removed to access the ore) from each new strip is used to fill the previous one, and the last strip is filled with material from the first. This helps in reducing the ecological damage on the site. This method is suitable for sites where the overlying rock can be easily removed, and is very common for coal and lignite (brown variety of coal) extraction. Strip mining requires some of the largest equipment ever built, such as bucketwheel and dragline excavators.

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In some sites, mineral deposits are present near the peaks of mountains. However, they are too deep to be removed by drilling tunnels from the sides. In such sites, the ore is accessed by removing the rock above the ore, by planting explosives in it. The ore is then removed, while the waste produced is deposited in river valleys or previously excavated mines. It is the newest method of surface mining, and is mostly used to extract coal. Since this process involves the bulldozing of forests, and a risk of the waste entering water bodies, it has drawn a lot of criticism from many quarters.

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Dredging is a method of obtaining mineral deposits from the bottom of rivers, oceans, harbors, and streams. As compared to other mining methods, where the ore has to be accessed by removing material above it, in this case, the river makes the job easier by directly transporting minerals from upstream areas. Dredging involves scooping up mud from the bottom of the water body, removing the minerals from it, and releasing the waste back to the bottom. This technique does not cause largescale disruption like other methods, and miners are increasingly processing the waste before releasing it to avoid contaminating the water. It is used for ores like tin, coal, gold, and diamonds, and derives its name from the equipment used called dredge (a kind of floating excavator). These surface mining methods are considered to be more efficient and economical in extracting minerals as compared to most methods of underground mining. In fact, it can extract almost 90% of ore from a deposit. For thi

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iron mining methods and equipmentA Underground Method of Mining Iron Ore. The latest and modern method of "rockfilling"was compelled by the conditions already described as in the West Vulcan mine of the Penn Iron Mining Company. The drawings of this mine (Figs. 3 and 4) Get PriceSurface Mining Methods and Equipment. UNESCOEOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERINGVol.

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Mining : What is Mining? What are the 4 mining methods Surface mining is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits. Techniques of surface mining include: openpit mining, which is the recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying, identical to openpit mining except that it refers to sand

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Surface Mining Surface Mining MiningMining Methods, Surface mining Mining. Mineral extraction: from mining to metal. Grinding of ore to allow separation of the ore minerals. Mineral Concentrate: Concentration of ore minerals: removes the ore mineral from the waste. Metal. Smelting: removes the metal from the ore mineral by a variety of ways. 5 Figure from Spitz and Trudinger

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Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry 44.1.1 Iron Ore Mining There are two basic methods of mining iron ore. These are: Surface mining or openpit mining Underground or shaft mining To be competitive, iron mining must be done on a very large scale. Surface mining is the preferred choice, although there are exceptions. Small, lowcapacity mines have rapidly disappeared.

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iron III Michigan State UniversityOn the Menominee range, ore bodies formed in troughs created by folded sedimentary layers. Impervious shales form the bottom of the ore bodies. Many of these ore bodies do not extend to the surface and thus the ironformations are sufficiently deformed so that it was necessary to utilize underground mining methods rather than the large openpit

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Types of Surface Mining American Mine ServicesThis type of mining makes sense when the mineral is near the surface. If the ore is too far under the surface, the process of strip mining becomes impractical and needlessly damaging to the terrain. Two types of strip mining exist, depending on the amount of ore under the surface, and the surrounding terrain. They are:

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(PDF) Mining Methods: Part ISurface miningMining Methods, Surface mining 2.1 ) PLACER MINING Placer deposits are concentrations of heav y minerals, usually w ithin loose alluvium that can easily be

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iron mining methods and equipmentA Underground Method of Mining Iron Ore. The latest and modern method of "rockfilling"was compelled by the conditions already described as in the West Vulcan mine of the Penn Iron Mining Company. The drawings of this mine (Figs. 3 and 4) Get PriceSurface Mining Methods and Equipment. UNESCOEOLSS SAMPLE CHAPTERS CIVIL ENGINEERINGVol.

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Surface Mining Iron Ore Business PlanSurface Mining Planning And Design Of Open Pit Mining. 8 openpit mining sequence for pipelike orebody 2 february 2016 prof.Harraz presentation mining methods, surface mining 1.8 openpit mining sequence 52.9 various openpit and orebody configurations massive deposit, flat terrain example ironore or sulphide deposits.

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Surface Mining Surface Mining MiningMining Methods, Surface mining Mining. Mineral extraction: from mining to metal. Grinding of ore to allow separation of the ore minerals. Mineral Concentrate: Concentration of ore minerals: removes the ore mineral from the waste. Metal. Smelting: removes the metal from the ore mineral by a variety of ways. 5 Figure from Spitz and Trudinger

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Surface Mining Methods Iron Ore ALUNETH Mining machineSurface mining methods surface mining process somewhat varies depending on how the target mineral deposit is situated eg horizontal inclined or interbedded but commonly includes the following four steps 1 top soil removal 2 overburden removal 3 extraction of ore. More Details Surface Mining Industry Of Metals Minerals Precious

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Mining : What is Mining? What are the 4 mining methods Surface mining is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits. Techniques of surface mining include: openpit mining, which is the recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying, identical to openpit mining except that it refers to sand

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Methods Of Mining Of Iron OreIron Ore Extraction Techniques Sciencedirect. 01 2015018332since the ore is flat lying thin and shallow in depth below the surface strip mining was adopted as the mining methodit is based on operating up to six mining pits at any one time with active mining occurring in 500 m long by 100 m wide panels.

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Iron element extraction, miningtechnique blast furnace methodMINING AND PROCESSING: Iron ore mining can be broadly divided into two categories namely 1) manual mining which is employed in small mines and 2) mechanized mining is suitable for large iron ore mines. Manual mining method is normally limited to float ores and small mines. Mining of reef ore is also being done manually on a small scale.

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Types of Mining Methods Sell Side Handbook 09, 2018 · Shrinkage stoping is an overhand mining method that is used for selfsupporting vertical ore bodies. In this method, ore is mined in horizontal slices, starting from the bottom to the top of the stope. The broken ore is left in the minedout stope and serves as a support to the stope walls and a working platform for mining the ore above.

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Mining : What is Mining? What are the 4 mining methods Surface mining is done by removing (stripping) surface vegetation, dirt, and, if necessary, layers of bedrock in order to reach buried ore deposits. Techniques of surface mining include: openpit mining, which is the recovery of materials from an open pit in the ground, quarrying, identical to openpit mining except that it refers to sand

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Surface Mining Methods and Equipmentappropriate mining method is selected based on technical, economic, and environmentally accountable considerations. The first step in selecting the most appropriate mining method is to compare the economic efficiency of extraction of the deposit by surface and underground mining methods . This section reviews surface mining methods and

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Overview: Mineral extraction from mining to metalThe mining method is selected according to the size, shape, orientation and type of the iron ore body that is being mined. There are several mining methods available. Surface mining.

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Mining techniques for companiessurface, underground mining Both types of deposits are mined by surface and underground methods. Some of the Mining Techniques. Room Mining. This type of exploration requires somebody to create a hallway method and then make a little opening in the walls. After that, must basically dig out some of the block to make a room.

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Surface Mining Methods iron OreEnergy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry 4. 4.1.1 Iron Ore Mining There are two basic methods of mining iron ore. These are: Surface mining or openpit mining Underground or shaft mining To be competitive, iron mining must be done on a very large scale. Surface mining is the preferred choice, although there are

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A Brief Introduction to the Types of Surface Mining Methods These surface mining methods are considered to be more efficient and economical in extracting minerals as compared to most methods of underground mining. In fact, it can extract almost 90% of ore from a deposit. For this reason, surface mining is the most widely used method in North America.

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Types of Surface Mining American Mine ServicesSurface mining is often the preference for mining companies. This is because removing the terrain surface, or overburden, to access the mineral beneath is often more costeffective than gouging tunnels and subterranean shafts to access minerals underground. This method is often considered safer, as well, and doesnt require extensive electricity rigging and water piping.

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Strip mining gets its name from the fact that the process involves stripping the surface away from the mineral thats being excavated (usually coal). Soil, rock, and vegetation over the mineral seam is removed with huge machines, including bucketwheel excavators. This type of mining makes sense when the mineral is near the surface. If the ore is too far under the surface, the process of strip mining becomes impractical and needlessly damaging to the terrain. Two types of strip mining exist, depending on the amount of ore under the surface, and the surrounding terrain. They are: 1. Area Strippingextracts ore over a large, flat terrain in long strips. The overburden of rocks and soil is dropped in the previous strip so that long gaps arent left in the earth after mining is complete. 2. Contour miningis a version of strip mining that follows the contours of outcrops and hilly terrains. Usually, the mineral seam follows the contour of the outcrop, and the overburden is removed careful

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Openpit mining is similar to strip mining, except the ore is removed from an open pit which is not then filled in. Openpit mining has been around for centuries, with ancient cultures like the Greeks, Romans, and Persians mining for granite, marble and even salt. Openpit mines are commonly called quarries when they produce materials used in building: limestone, granite, and marble, for example. These pit mines continue to be enlarged until there is no more ore to mine or the overburden becomes too heavy. When its no longer economical to operate an openpit mine, its commonly converted to a landfill or waste disposal site. The pros of an open pit mine is that these mines usually produce a vast amount of ore without the costly process of removing overburden the ore is often in a large area and close to the surface. However, a major con of these type of mines is that they are both dangerous to work in, and permanently alter the surrounding ecosystem.

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Mountaintop Removal Mining is highly controversial, and best suited for retrieving mass amounts of minerals, usually coal, from mountain peaks. The process involves blasting the overburden with explosives above the mineral seam to be mined. The broken mountaintop is then shifted into valleys and fills below. This type of mining is used when the ore to be retrieved is 400 feet or deeper. Controversy surrounds the permanent alteration of ecosystems and entire landscapes by removing mountaintops, however, advocates point out that after completion the mining process leaves a flat terrain where there wasnt one when reclamation is complete.

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Dredging is the more sophisticated version of panning for gold. In fact, its mostly associated with gold mining. Much like hopeful miners with their pans during the gold rush, floating dredges (a barge fitted with conveyor belts and scoops) move up a water table. A scoop lifts material up on a conveyor belt, and the mineral is removed on board the barge. The unwanted material is then dropped back into the water table using another conveyor belt.

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Highwall mining relies on machinery to collect ores from a highwall, or an unmined wall with overburden and exposed minerals and ores. Usually, highwalls are found at the edges of quarries and pit mines, and enable miners to retrieve ore from a wall that would otherwise be too expensive to clear of overburden in order to reach the ore. Its also used in contour strip mines to retrieve additional ore from the mineral seam above the created terrace. An expensive and remotely controlled highwall mining machine excavates in a tight square from the face, using continuous drilling. Conveyor belts and pulleys move the matter from the drill through the device and the leftover matter is deposited behind the drill.

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Surface Mining Methods iron OreEnergy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry 4. 4.1.1 Iron Ore Mining There are two basic methods of mining iron ore. These are: Surface mining or openpit mining Underground or shaft mining To be competitive, iron mining must be done on a very large scale. Surface mining is the preferred choice, although there are

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Mining Underground mining BritannicaMining Mining Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the costs, which, for each ton of material mined, are much higher underground than on the

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Mining Underground mining BritannicaMining Mining Underground mining: When any ore body lies a considerable distance below the surface, the amount of waste that has to be removed in order to uncover the ore through surface mining becomes prohibitive, and underground techniques must be considered. Counting against underground mining are the costs, which, for each ton of material mined, are much higher underground than on the

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Overview: Mineral extraction from mining to metalThe mining method is selected according to the size, shape, orientation and type of the iron ore body that is being mined. There are several mining methods available. Surface mining.

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surface mining methods iron oresurface mining methods iron ore geboortespandoek.eu. There are two basic methods of mining iron ore. These are: Surface mining or openpit mining Underground or shaft mining To be competitive, iron mining must be done on a very large scale. Surface mining is the preferred choice, although there are exceptions.

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iron III Michigan State UniversityOn the Menominee range, ore bodies formed in troughs created by folded sedimentary layers. Impervious shales form the bottom of the ore bodies. Many of these ore bodies do not extend to the surface and thus the ironformations are sufficiently deformed so that it was necessary to utilize underground mining methods rather than the large openpit

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