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Froth Flotation Process Mineral Processing &MetallurgyThe Froth Flotation Process is about taking advantage of the natural hydrophobicity of liberated (well ground) minerals/metals and making/playing on making them hydrophobic (waterrepel) individually to carefully separate them from one another and the slurry they are in. For this purpose we use chemicals/reagents:

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The froth flotation process was patented by E. L.Sulman, H. F. K. Pickard, and John Ballot in 1906, 19 years after the first cyanide process patents of MacArthur and the Forests. It was the result of the intelligent recognition of a remarkable phenomenon which occurred while they were experimenting with the Cattermole process. This was the beginning. When it became clear that froth flotation could save the extremely fine free mineral in the slime, with a higher recovery than even gravity concentration could make under the most favorable conditions, such as slimefree pulp, froth flotation forged ahead to revolutionize the nonferrous mining industry. The principles of froth flotation are a complex combination of the laws of surface chemistry, colloidal chemistry, crystallography, and physics, which even after 50 years are not clearly understood. Its results are obtained by specific chemical reagents and the control of chemical conditions. It not only concentrates given minerals but also separates minerals which previously were inseparable by gravity concentration.

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This new process, flotation, whose basic principles were not understood in the early days, was given to metallurgists and mill men to operate. Their previous experience gave them little guidance for overcoming the serious difficulties which they encountered. Few of them knew organic chemistry. Those in charge of flotation rarely had flotation laboratories. Flotation research was done by cut and try and empirical methods. The mining industry had no well equipped research laboratories manned by scientific teams.

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This volume, then, is dedicated to those men who, with limited means, made froth flotation what it is today. It is designed to record the impact of this great ore treatment development on the mining industry both present and future.

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The single most important method used for the recovery and upgrading of sulfide ores, thats how G. J. Jameson described the froth flotation process in 1992. And its true: this process, used in several processing industries, is able to selectively separate hydrophobic from hydrophilic materials, by taking advantage of the different categories of hydrophobicity that are increased by using surfactants and wetting agents during the process also applied to wastewater treatment or paper recycling. The mining field wouldnt be the same without this innovation, considered one of the greatest technologies applied to the industry in the twentieth century. Its consequent development boosted the recovery of valuable minerals like copper, for instance. Our world, full of copper wires used for electrical conduction and electrical motors, wouldnt be the same without this innovative process.

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During the froth flotation process, occurs the separation of several types of sulfides, carbonates and oxides, prior to further refinement. Phosphates and coal can also be purified by flotation technology.

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Flotation can be performed by different types of machines, in rectangular or cylindrical mechanically agitated cells or tanks, columns, a Jameson Flotation Cell or deinking flotation machines. The mechanical cells are based in a large mixer and diffuser mechanism that can be found at the bottom of the mixing tank and introduces air, providing a mixing action. The flotation columns use air spargers to generate air at the bottom of a tall column, while introducing slurry above and generating a mixing action, as well.

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To help towards an understanding of the reasons for the employment of specific types of reagents and of the methods of using them, an outline of the principal theoretical factors which govern their application may be of service. For a full discussion of the theory of flotation the various papers and textbooks which deal with this aspect should be consulted.

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The physical phenomena involved in the flotation of minerals, those, for example, of liquid and solid surfacetensions, interfacial tension, adsorption, flocculation, and deflocculation, are the manifestations or effects of the surfaceenergies possessed by all liquids and solids in varying degree. These, in turn, arise from the attractions which exist between the interior molecules of every substance and are responsible for their distinctive propertiesform, fluidity, cohesion, hardness, and so on. It follows, therefore, that every substance must exhibit some degree of surfaceenergy.

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The reagents added to promote the separation of the wanted minerals by increasing the water/solid contactangle consist of substances whose molecules or minute suspensions have a markedly lower attraction for water molecules than the latter exert between themselves. Finely divided oil emulsions in water, dissolved xanthates, and other promoters are typical of such reagents. Substances of such nature, when dissolved in or disseminated through water, are preeminently adsorbed, or thrust towards the water boundaries, where the intramolecular attractions are less uniformly balanced. Normally, this would occur at the free or air/water surface. In a pulp, however, from which air surfaces are absent, but in which mineral particles are suspended, the same thing takes place at the water/solid boundaries, adsorption being most pronounced at those faces where the interfacial tension is greatest viz., those with the highest contactangle value and lowest adhesion for water. The minute particles of oil or xanthate molecules are thus virtually thrust into adherence with the more floatable solids, whose surfaces they therefore film, increasing the contactangles to their own high values and so rendering the solid more floatable. Experimental work indicates that the film so formed is of the order of one molecule in thickness.

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Adsorption can be both positive and negative. Substances whose molecules have less attraction for water than the water molecules have for each other are concentrated at the water boundaries as explained in the foregoing paragraph this is termed positive adsorption, but substances whose molecules have a greater attraction for water molecules than the latter have for each other will tend to be dragged away from the surface layers, at which their concentration thus becomes less than in the interior of the liquid this is negative adsorption. Substances that are negatively adsorbed are those which tend to form chemical compounds or definite hydrates with water, such as sulphuric acid. In froth flotation we are concerned more with positive than with negative adsorption.

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The nomenclature adopted is that which has grown up in practice. It is perhaps not scientifically exact, but it sufficiently indicates the purposes for which the reagents are employed.

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The operation of flotation is not always confined to the separation of the valuable constituents of an ore in a single concentrate from a gangue composed of rockforming minerals. It often happens that two classes of floatable minerals are present, of which only one is required. The process of floating one class in preference to another is termed selective or preferential flotation , the former being perhaps the better term to use. When both classes of minerals are required in separate concentrates, the process by which first one and then the other is floated is often called differential flotation , but in modern practice the operation is described as twostage selective flotation .

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The use of these reagents has been extended in recent years to three stage selective flotation. For example, ores containing the sulphide minerals of lead, zinc, and iron, can be treated to yield three successive concentrates, wherein each class of minerals is recovered separately more or less uncontaminated by the others.

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Although the flotation of the commoner ores, notably those containing copper and leadzinc minerals, has become standardized to some extent, there is nevertheless considerable variation in the amount and nature of the reagents required for their treatment. For this reason the running costs of the flotation section of a plant are somewhat difficult to predict accurately without some test data as a basis, more especially as the cost of reagents is usually the largest item. Tables 32 and 33 can therefore only be regarded as approximations. Table 32 gives the cost of the straightforward treatment in airlift machines of a simple ore such as one containing easily floated sulphide copper minerals, and Table 33 that of the twostage selective flotation of a leadzinc or similar complex ore. From Table 32 it will be seen that the reagent charge is likely to be the largest item even in the flotation of an ore that is comparatively easy to treat, except in the case of a very small plant, when the labour charge may exceed it. At one time the power consumption in the flotation section was as expensive an item as that of the reagents, but the development of the modern types of airlift and pneumatic machines has made great economies possible in expenditure under this heading. As a rule CallowMaclntosh machines require less power than those of the airlift type to give the same results, while subaeration machines can seldom compete with either in the flotation of simple ores, although improvements in their design in recent years have resulted in considerable reductions in the power needed to drive them. It should be noted that the power costs given in the table include pumping the pulp a short distance to the flotation machines, as would be necessary in an installation built on a flat site, and the elevation of the rougher and scavenger concentrates as in circuits such as Nos. 9 and 10. The costs given in Table 33 may be considered as applying to a plant built on a flat site for the twostage selective flotation of a complex ore in subaeration machines with a tank for conditioning the pulp ahead of each stage and one cleaning operation for each rougher concentrate. It is evident that the reagent charge is by far the largest item of cost. This probably accounts for the more or less general use of machines of the mechanically agitated type for complex ores in spite of their higher power consumption and upkeep costs, since the highspeed conditioning action of the impellers and provision for the accurate regulation of each cell offer the possibility of keeping the reagent consumption at a minimum. As in the case of singlestage flotation, the charge for labour falls rapidly as the capacity of the plant increases to 1,000 tons per day beyond this point the rate of decrease of this and all other items of cost with increase of tonnage is less rapid. The remarks in the previous paragraph concerning the importance of research work and attention to technical details apply with added force, because of the possibility through improved metallurgy of reducing the much higher reagent and power costs which a complex ore of the class in question has to bear.

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The power costs decrease with increasing tonnage because of the greater economy of larger units and the lower price of power when produced on a large scale. The cost in respect of reagents and supplies also decreases as the size of the plant increases, due to better control and organization and to lower first cost and freight rates of supplies when purchased in bulk. The great disadvantage of a small installation lies in the high labour cost. This, however, shows a rapid reduction with increase of tonnage up to 1,000 tons per day, the reason being that with modern methods a flotation section handling this tonnage requires few more operators than one designed for only 200 tons per day. For installations of greater capacity the decrease is comparatively slight, since the plant then generally consists of parallel 1,000ton units, each one requiring the same operating force the reduction in the cost of labour through increase of tonnage is then due chiefly to the lower cost of supervision and better facilities for maintenance and repairs. Provided that the installation is of such a size as to assure reasonable economy of labour, research work and attention to the technical details of flotation are generally the most effective methods of reducing costs, since improved metallurgy is likely to result in a lower reagent consumption if not in decreased power requirements.

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